Nowadays, the trend of urban population has shown rapid growth. This population growth in big cities have produced population explosion, that is contrary to the situation in rural areas. In Papua, Fakfak city’s development grows along with its population growth. To control the population growth in Fakfak, the local government has set up a program named Gerbang Kaca (Gerakan Membangun Kampung Bercahaya) or the Movement to Build Brighter Villages.
Fakfak is one of the regions in West Papua and one of the oldest cities in Papua. It is famous for nutmegs and has been called as the “Nutmeg city”. Fakfak has 9 districts that are divided into 7 sub-districts with 118 villages. There are several tourism spots in Fakfak such as the alluring sea ecotourism, prehistoric heritage, and the natural beauty of its forests. Unfortunately, there have yet proper facilities and infrastructures such as road and transportation to support it.
Because of the limited facilities and infrastructures, the availability of job for the people of productive age is affected. While in the other hand, big cities have better development and there are a lot of available jobs in a various fields. Hence, people in the villages are lured to come to the cities with the assumption of big earning, more than what they have in their present place. These are the basic factors of urbanization.
Urbanization gives a lot of impact on society’s life. One of the visible impact is poverty. This happens when there’s social and development gap between big cities and villages. The lack of development in villages and the far distance from villages to the center of economy will cause a low productivity as well as a low economy level.
The cities are also susceptible to problems caused by urbanization. The existing problems in big cities due to urbanization are; high unemployment number, poor neighborhoods sprouting all over the city, and high criminality number. Although there are a lot of various jobs available in big cities, most of the people from the villages are not prepared with proper skills nor are qualified workers. In addition, some of them do not have any fixed residency plan in the city, either to stay temporary or live permanently.
Based on the Census Welfare data of Fakfak that was released on 2015 by the Center of Population and Policy Studies, Gadjah Mada University (PSKK UGM), it shows that there are 3,902 households that can be classified as poor. The percentage of poor households is rather high in some districts such as; Kokas District (40.5 percent), Kramongmongga District (39.3 percent), Patipi Gulf District (39.2 percent) and only a few in urban areas such as in Bomberay (17 percent) and Fakfak City (23.7 percent).
As cited from cpps.ugm.ac.id, Dra. Wini Tamtiari, M.Si., a researcher from PSKK UGM said that “The villages should be encouraged to have economic benefits by implementing various programs that can directly reach the people. For example, by creating village productivity, while increasing its competitiveness.”
The aim of Gerbang Kaca is to bring back the people to their village or hometown. Furthermore, it also aims to build these villages and develop them as the basis of economic growth that are able to compete with other villages or big cities.
Based on Fakfak Regional Development Visions of Year 2016-2021, the developments of Gerbang Kaca are:
- Data collecting using village profiling,
- Planning using village master plan,
- Budgeting using budget guidance process,
- Execution using village target implementation program, and
- Joint cooperation with shared responsibility through realistic, comprehensive, and finalized approach.
Each village has different development, which is based on their needs. However, the village general needs are as follows:
- The acceleration of basic infrastructures such as roads, bridges, and boat moorings,
- Environmental infrastructure in villages such as clean water and sanitation villages,
- Electric and telecommunications access,
- Basic services both in education and health,
- Basic needs such as places of worship, economic needs, and traditional culture.
On 2017, the target for this program will be 35 villages. The Public Works Service (PU) will focus on the infrastructure of roads , clean water, and electricity. While for housing, there is a village fund that will be allocated by the villages.
There are many ongoing infrastructures development in Papua right now, including housing, transportation, and roads. The developments in many sectors are aimed to increase the welfare and economic growth of the people in Papua.
For this program, the Fakfak Board of Regional Development Planning is cooperating with PSKK UGM to conduct the assessment and to develop program implementation guidelines for the target villages. The regent of Fakfak would like to integrate Gerbang Kaca program with TMMD (Indonesian National Armed Forces Village Development) program.